Check out some information on our most common elbow injuries. If you are in need of medical attention for any of the following procedures, please feel free to contact us as soon as possible to schedule your appointment.
The elbow is the joint that connects the upper arm bone and the forearm bones. Elbow joint helps in movement of the arms forward, backward, as well as to twist the arms inside and outside. Elbow joint may get affected by inflammation, injury, or other disease conditions causing severe pain and requiring surgical treatment. Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery performed using a tiny device called arthroscope.
Conditions of the elbow that can be treated by arthroscopy include fractures, tennis elbow, stiffness, arthritis, and tear in the ligaments, and cartilage.
Your surgeon performs medical physical examination and seeks your medical history before arthroscopy is performed.
Elbow arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery or keyhole procedure that allows your surgeon to look inside the elbow using small incisions and instruments to evaluate and treat elbow conditions. It is performed under anesthesia. At first, your surgeon makes 2-3 incisions near your elbow one for insertion of an arthroscope, a small device with a camera and lens fixed to the end of a narrow fiber-optic tube and other for insertion of operating instruments. The camera-lens setting magnifies and projects images of the elbow on a large screen monitor. Through the other incisions surgical instruments are inserted to treat the condition. Your surgeon injects a sterile solution into the elbow to expand the joint that allows giving an extra room to work. After the surgery the stitches are closed and dressing is applied.
After the surgery, your surgeon will place a cast or a splint that prevents the movement of the elbow until it is healed completely. You should elevate the elbow to avoid swelling and minimize pain. Ice (wrapped over a cloth) can be applied over the operated area which helps to reduce swelling. Medications are prescribed to reduce pain. Always keep the operated area dry and clean.
Some of the advantages of arthroscopy are it requires smaller incisions, minimal soft tissue trauma, less pain, faster recovery time, low infection rate, less scarring, earlier mobilization, and allows patient to restore to normal activities faster.
Some of the risks observed after elbow arthroscopy include infection, damage to the nearby nerves or tissues during surgery, and stiffness which can be treated through occupational therapy. Exercises are performed to strengthen and rebuild elbow strength.
Elbow arthroscopy may not be performed in individuals with ulnar nerve transposition and in those who had surgery earlier that had changed the normal elbow anatomy.
Lateral epicondylitis, commonly referred to as tennis elbow, is an overuse injury that causes inflammation of the tendons that attach to the bony prominence on the outside of the elbow. It is a painful condition occurring from repeated muscle contractions in the forearm that leads to inflammation and micro-tears in the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle. The lateral epicondyle is the bony prominence that is felt on the outside of the elbow.
Patients with tennis elbow experience certain symptoms and they include:
Tennis Elbow is usually caused by overuse of the forearm muscles but may also be caused by direct trauma such as with a fall, car accident, or work injury.
Tennis elbow is commonly seen in tennis players, hence the name, especially when poor technique is used when hitting the ball with a backhand stroke. Other common causes include any activity that requires repetitive motion of the forearm such as:
Your physician will evaluate tennis elbow by:
Your physician will recommend conservative treatment options to treat the tennis elbow symptoms. These may include:
If conservative treatment options fail to resolve the condition and symptoms persist for 6 -12 months, your surgeon may recommend you undergo a surgical procedure to treat Tennis Elbow called lateral epicondyle release surgery. Your surgeon will decide whether to perform your surgery in the traditional manner or endoscopically. Traditional surgery involves up to a 2" incision in the elbow area, whereas arthroscopic surgery involves one or two smaller incisions and the use of an arthroscope with a camera for viewing internal structures.
The television camera attached to the endoscope displays the image of the joint on a television screen, allowing the surgeon to look throughout the elbow joint at cartilage, ligaments, nerves and bone.
The benefits of endoscopic surgery compared to the alternative, open elbow surgery, include:
Cubital tunnel release surgery is the surgery to correct the cubital tunnel syndrome. Cubital tunnel syndrome, also called ulnar nerve entrapment is a condition caused by compression of the ulnar nerve in an area of the elbow called the cubital tunnel. The ulnar nerve travels down the back of the elbow behind the bony bump called the medial epicondyle and through a passageway called the cubital tunnel. The cubital tunnel is a narrow passageway on the inside of the elbow formed by bone, muscle, and ligaments with the ulnar nerve passing through its center. The roof of the cubital tunnel is covered with soft tissue called fascia. When the elbow is bent, the ulnar nerve can stretch and catch on the bony bump. When the ulnar nerve is compressed or entrapped, the nerve can tear and become inflamed leading to various symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome usually occur gradually, progressing to the point where the patient seeks medical attention. Left untreated, cubital tunnel syndrome can lead to permanent nerve damage in the hand. Commonly reported symptoms associated with cubital tunnel syndrome include intermittent numbness, tingling, and pain to the little finger, ring finger, and the inside of the hand. These symptoms occur more frequently at night, and with elbow bending or prolonged resting on the elbow.
Injury to the elbow such as fractures, dislocations, or a direct blow can cause tissue swelling which can compress the ulnar nerve within the cubital tunnel. Individuals who perform repetitive elbow flexion movements at work or play are believed to be at high risk for developing cubital tunnel syndrome. Repeatedly bending and straightening the elbow can irritate and inflame the ulnar nerve. Leaning on the elbow for extended periods of time such as when working at a desk can also cause ulnar nerve irritation. Bone spurs, ganglion cysts, or tumors can form in the cubital tunnel leading to pressure and irritation of the ulnar nerve.
Your physician will recommend conservative treatment options initially to treat the cubital tunnel syndrome symptoms unless muscle wasting or nerve damage is present. Conservative treatment options may include wearing a brace or splint at night while sleeping to keep the elbow in a straight position. You can also wrap the arm loosely with a towel and apply tape to hold in place. If conservative treatment options fail to resolve the condition or if muscle wasting or severe nerve compression is present, your surgeon may recommend you undergo a surgical procedure to treat Cubital Tunnel Syndrome.
Different surgeries are performed to treat your condition.
If your nerve compression is mild your surgeon may recommend a medial epicondylectomy. In this procedure your surgeon will make an incision over the medial epicondyle, the bony bump on the inside of the elbow. The cubital tunnel is cut open through the soft tissue roof exposing the ulnar nerve. The forearm muscles or flexor muscles are cut and detached from the epicondyle. Using special instruments, your surgeon will shave away the bump, freeing the ulnar nerve to glide smoothly within the cubital tunnel without pressure from the bump. The flexor muscles are then reattached to the area of shaved bone with special sutures. The incision is then closed with sutures and covered with a dressing.
More commonly, your surgeon may recommend an ulnar nerve transposition. Your surgeon will make an incision over the medial epicondyle. The cubital tunnel is cut open through the soft tissue roof exposing the ulnar nerve. The forearm muscles or flexor muscles are cut and detached from the epicondyle. The ulnar nerve is transposed or moved from behind the elbow to a new location in front of the elbow. The ulnar nerve may be placed above the flexor muscle, within the muscle, or under the muscle. Your surgeon will decide which option is best for you. The flexor muscles are then sutured back together and reattached with special sutures to the Epicondyle. The incision is then closed with sutures and covered with a dressing.
The majority of patients suffer no complications following cubital tunnel surgery however complications can occur following elbow surgery and include:
The biceps muscle, located in the front of the upper arm allows you to bend the elbow and rotate the arm. Biceps tendons attach the biceps muscle to the bones in the shoulder and in the elbow.
Biceps tear can be complete or partial. Partial biceps tendon tears will not completely break the tendon. Complete tendon tears will break the tendon into two parts.
Biceps tendon tears at the shoulder: Two tendons that attach the biceps muscle to the bones in the shoulder, the long head tendon that attaches the muscle to the top of the shoulder's socket (glenoid) and the short head that attaches it to the shoulder blade. Tears are more likely to occur in the long head of the biceps tendon. Tears of the short head of the biceps are very rare. But even in case of a complete tear of the long head, the short head of the biceps may allow you to continue using your biceps muscle.
Biceps tendon tears at the elbow: Although two tendons attach the biceps muscle to the bone at the shoulder, only one tendon attaches it to the elbow. This is known as the distal biceps tendon. Tears of the distal biceps tendon are usually complete and the muscle is separated from the bone. Tears of the distal biceps tendon most often result from a sudden injury or lifting a heavy object.
Biceps tendon tear can be caused by injury such as falling down with your arm outstretched or during the act of lifting heavy objects. In case of overuse, a tendon may fray and eventually tear. Other shoulder problems such as tendonitis, shoulder impingement, and rotator cuff injuries are more likely to weaken or tear the biceps tendon. Additional risk factors such as advancing age, heavy overhead activities, repetitive overhead sports, smoking, and use of corticosteroids can also result in a tendon tear.
The most common symptom is a sudden, severe pain in the upper arm or at the elbow, depending on where the tendon is injured. At times you may hear a "pop". Other symptoms include swelling, visible bruising, weakness in the shoulder or elbow, and trouble turning your arm palm or palm down. A bulge referred to as a "Popeye Muscle," may also appear in your arm, because the tendon is no longer holding the muscle in place properly.
Biceps tendon tear is usually diagnosed based on your symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. During the physical examination, your doctor will look for a gap in the front of the elbow. Your doctor will diagnose a partial tear by asking you to bend your arm and tighten the biceps muscle. You may have pain if there is a partial tear. X-rays may be taken to rule out other conditions causing shoulder and elbow pain. Using an MRI scan your doctor can know whether tear is partial or complete.
Conservative treatment for a proximal biceps tendon tear includes ice application, limiting activity, non steroidal anti-inflammatory medications to reduce the pain and keep down the swelling. To restore the mobility and strengthen of the surrounding muscles, your doctor may prescribe certain flexibility and strengthening exercises. Surgery to reattach the torn tendon back to the bone is rarely needed. However, for patients with partial tears who continue to experience symptoms after non-surgical treatments or who want all of their arm strength back, such as athletes or manual laborers, surgery may be the best option. Complications are rare and a re-tearing of the repaired tendon is rare. Following surgical repair, you will need to do flexibility and strengthening exercises to improve the range of motion in your shoulder.
Your surgeon may opt for several surgical procedures for distal bicep tendon tear where the distal biceps tendon is reattached to the forearm bone. Some doctors would instead use two incisions, while some use only 1 incision. Both procedures carry certain advantages and disadvantages. During the procedure, the tendon is attached with stitches through holes drilled inside the bone or small metal implants may be used to attach the tendon to the bone.
Complications are rare and may include numbness and weakness in the forearm, formation of new bone, limited movement, and re-tearing may occur.